My dissertation, “Drawing Capital: Depiction, Machine Tools and the Political Economy of Industrial Knowledge, 1824-1914,” analyzes class formation and shifts in the international technology trade via the practice of mechanical drawing in the capital goods sectors of Britain, France, the United States, and Germany during the long nineteenth century. “Drawing Capital” connects the histories of the knowledge economy and intellectual property to processes of class formation and international trade to explain the increasing global mobility of machines. Focused on the historical reformatting and legal regulation of mechanical knowledge, my work on drafting and design practices uncovers how experience became image or scientific artifact, and how images and data become commodities—freely circulating or enclosed in monopolies. Using the archives of engineers, technological print culture, and firms that constructed machinery, metalworking tools, and metrological devices such as Cockerill, Gutehoffnungshütte, Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg, Borsig, Mannesmann, J.E. Reinecker & Co., Ludwig Loewe & Co., William Sellers & Co., Baldwin Locomotive Works, Pratt & Whitney, and Brown & Sharpe, I tell the story of how firms and nation-states transitioned from attempting to monopolize technologies to allowing their export to actively organizing cartels to pursue the mechanization of transport, extractive, and industrial enterprises globally by World War I.